Wednesday, March 18, 2020
Why Fossilized Shark Teeth Are Black Shark teeth are made up of calcium phosphate, which is the mineral apatite. Although shark teeth are sturdier than the cartilage that makes up their skeleton, the teeth still disintegrate over time unless they are fossilized. This is why you rarely find white shark teeth on a beach. Shark teeth are preserved if the tooth is buried, which prevents decomposition by oxygen and bacteria. Shark teeth buried in sediments absorb surrounding minerals, turning them from a normal whitish tooth color to a deeper color, usually black, gray, or tan. The fossilization process takes at least 10,000 years, although some fossil sharks teeth are millions of years old! Fossils are old, but you cant tell the approximate age of a shark tooth simply by its color because the color (black, gray, brown) depends completely on the chemical composition of the sediment that replaced the calcium during the fossilization process. How toÃ Find Shark Teeth Why would you want to find shark teeth? Some of them are valuable, plus they can be used to make interesting jewelry or to start a collection. Plus, theres a chance youll find a tooth from a predator that lived 10 to 50 million years ago! While its possible to find teeth just about anywhere, your best bet is to search at a beach. I live in Myrtle Beach, so every time I go to the shore I look for teeth. At this beach, most of the teeth are black because of the chemical composition of the sediment offshore. At other beaches, fossilized teeth may be gray or brown or slightly green. Once you find the first tooth, youll know what color to seek. Of course, theres always a chance youll find a white shark tooth, but these are much harder to see against shells and sand. If youve never looked for shark teeth before, start out looking for black pointy objects. If the teeth are black, there will also be some black shell fragments that resemble shark teeth.Ã How do you know if its a shell or a tooth? Dry off your find and hold it up to the light. Even though a tooth could be millions of years old, it will still look glossy in the light. A shell, on the other hand, will show ripples from its growth and maybe some iridescence. Most shark teeth also maintain some of their structure. Look for a cutting edge along the edge of the blade (flat part) of the tooth, which may still have ridges. Thats a dead giveaway youve scored a shark tooth. A tooth may also have an intact root, which tends to be less shiny than the blade. Teeth come in a variety of shapes. Some are triangular, but others are needle-like. Good places to start are at the waterline, where the waves can help reveal the teeth, or by inspecting or sifting through a pile of shells. Keep in mind, the size of the teeth you can find is usually similar to the size of surrounding debris. While its possible to find a giant Megalodon tooth in the sand, large teeth like this are most often found near similar-sized rocks or shells.
Monday, March 2, 2020
The Purpose of Building a Portfolio Assessment A portfolio assessment is a collection of student works that are associated with standards you are required to learn. This collection of work is often gathered over a long period of time to reflect what you have been taught as well as what you have learned. Each piece in the portfolio is selected because it is an authentic representation of what you have learned and is meant to demonstrate your current knowledge and skills. A portfolio by nature is a storybook capturing a students progression of learning as they move through the year. What Goes Into a Portfolio A portfolio can include classwork, artistic pieces, photographs, and a variety of other media all demonstrating the concepts that you have mastered. Each item that is selected to go in the portfolio is chosen within the parameters of the purpose of the portfolio itself. Many teachers require their students to write a reflection that correlates with each piece in the portfolio. This practice is advantageous for the student as they self-assess their work and may set goals to improve. Finally, the reflection helps reinforce the concept for the student and it provides some clarity for anyone reviewing the portfolio. Ultimately, the most authentic portfolios are built when the teacher and student work collaboratively to decide which pieces should be included to demonstrate mastery of a specific learning objective. The Purpose of Developing a Portfolio A portfolio assessment is often deemed an authentic form of assessment because it includes authentic samples of a students work.Ã Many advocates of the portfolio assessment argue that this makes it a superior assessment tool because it is demonstrates learning and growth over an extended period of time. They believe it is more indicative of what a students true abilities especially when you compare it to a standardized test that provides a snapshot of what a student can do on a particular day. Ultimately, the teacher guiding the portfolio process helps determine the purpose of the final portfolio. The portfolio may be used to show growth over time, it may be used to promote a students abilities, or it may be used to evaluate a students learning within a specific course. Its purpose may also be a combination of all three areas. The Pros of Using a Portfolio Assessment A portfolio assessment demonstrates learning over the course of time rather than what a student knows a particular day.A portfolio assessment provides an opportunity for a student to reflect on their learning, to self assess, and to formulate a deeper understanding of the concepts they are learning beyond a simple surface explanation.A portfolio assessment requires a great level of individual interaction between the student and teacher wherein they are always collaborating about the requirements and components going into the portfolio. Ã The Cons of Using a Portfolio Assessment Developing and assessing a portfolio is time-consuming. It takes a lot of effort from both the teacher and the student and is a demanding endeavor in which you can quickly fall behind.Portfolio assessments are very subjective in nature. Even if the teacher utilizes a rubric, the individualized nature of a portfolio makes it difficult to remain objective and stick to the rubric. Two students working on the same learning standard may have two totally different approaches thus learning may not be the same.
Saturday, February 15, 2020
Final Exam - Essay Example Affluent individuals can now also engage in a new relationship with strangers across the world that involves a larger community and stronger connections. Via new technologies at the work place, increased mobility, and international trade, people are now more interconnected than before. In addition to this economic interconnection, there is also environmental interconnection. We partake of the same natural resources; water and air, with people from less affluent countries. Because of this environmental and economic interconnection, the actions that we take are directly impactful on people in less affluent countries (Winfried & Pogge 34). Consumption on our side, as a global consumer of resources, affects the environment of those far and near. The actions we take have a consequence for others living in countries far from ours and we are responsible, causally, for the consequences, without regard of the place that they take place. Because our actions can bring environmental and economic harm to those living in less affluent countries and we remain unmoved by the suffering and pain inflicted on them, therefore; this is a brutish behavior (Winfried & Pogge 34). To act in a virtuous manner, however, would be showing compassion for them in a manner in which our close neighbors are not harmed. As people from affluent countries possess the capacity to be of aid, are members of a globalized community where actions affect those in less affluent countries and th e fact that failure to act would be an act of moral viciousness, we must act in order to alleviate severe poverty. While terrorism is an old practice, the war on the same is a new concept. The war on terror challenges prior conceptions on conflict, especially the theory of a just-war (Smit 23). While the question regarding whether the war on terror is just still remains unanswerable,
Sunday, February 2, 2020
Pampered pooches travel in style - Case Study Example The trend nowadays is to focus on the customization of pet products and services so that they resemble those of human beings. The bottom-line in the attempt to treat pets as people are treated is the fact that the 75 million dogs and 88 million cats are trainable. One pet enthusiast and the CEO of PetSmart.Inc Phillip L. Francis concedes that the care of pets is because unlike snakes and fish, the can be trained to accompany man. The company is one of the leading retailers in pet foods and has even gone a step further by attempting to teach people to become better pet parents. The line between the way that these four-legged mammals are treated and the way that the two-legged mammals are treated has thinned. This paper will attempt to answer a couple of questions mostly on how hotels and other retailers of pet products and services can take the rise in pet enthusiasm to their advantage. The fact that only the consumer electronic market is faster growing that the pet market shows that opportunities are many and the market can be easily tapped by customizing products so that they better satisfy these consumers. For an upscale hotel to be in a position to capitalize on the growing pet market, a number of things have to be done. First, the hotel should ensure that it has the best facilities than its competitors. This means that a market research is of utmost importance. Pet owners should be interviewed so that their input is used to better the facilities that may be available for the pets. Most hotels offer private suites for pets that are characterized by raised platform beds. This is a shift from the traditional low lying beds that were next to the pet owners beds. However, it is now almost a rule that pets have their own beds that resemble those of their owners. Additionally, there are television sets in those suites that are tuned into the animal channels.
Saturday, January 25, 2020
The sale of cigarettes and tobacco is a multi-billion dollar industry, but is it truly worth all the problems that stem from their use. Health care costs are extremely high due to all the health problems associated with cigarettes and tobacco. Even though research has proven time and time again the harmful effects of cigarettes, and the rising cost of health care caused by cigarettes our government will not take a stand and stop all manufacturing of the horrible toxins. Every year new medical reports are issued regarding the harmful effects of smoking cigarettes. Hundreds of thousands of people around the world die every year from diseases caused by smoking. Approximately one in two lifetime smokers will die from their habit. Half of these deaths will occur in middle age. The most common of the diseases caused by smoking is cancer, of course. Not only is it a cause of lung cancer, but cancer of the larynx, and the esophagus, and it contributes to the development of cancers of the bladder, pancreas, and kidney. Lung cancer comes from the tar in the cigarettes. The tar coats your lungs like soot in a chimney. It does not make a difference if a smoker changes to low-tar cigarettes because smokers will take a deeper puff to get the same affect as a regular cigarette. This causes them to draw the tar deeper into their lungs causing even more damage. The Surgeon General requires that every package of cigarettes has one of the following statemen ts: SURGEON GENERALÃ¢â¬â¢S WARNING: Smoking Causes Lung Cancer, Heart Disease, Emphysema, And May Complicate Pregnancy. SURGEON GENERALÃ¢â¬â¢S WARNING: Cigarette Smoke Contains Carbon Monoxide. Despite these warnings most of the population is not aware of the other illnesses that can develop... ...is vicious cycle? They have taken a stand to control the nicotine in the cigarettes; why not take that stand even further? Do they not realize by making these wicked things illegal and shutting down manufacturers, not only will they save on health care, they will save lives? Works Cited http://www.quit-smoking-stop.com/smoking-diseases.html, http://harvardscience.harvard.edu/culture-society/articles/cigarette-manufacturers-developed-candy-flavored-brands-target-youth, Carrie Carpenter, Harvard School of Public Health, November, 2005 http://www.time.com/time/health/article/0,8599,1889469,00.html, Fixing Health Care Cheaply, Haig, Scott, April, 2009 "FDA bans flavored cigarettes as part of new tobacco control act." Hem/Onc Today 25 Oct. 2009: 2. Academic Search Complete. EBSCO. Web. 23 Nov. 2009. Wilkes, Gwen, Personal Interview, 27 November 2009.
Thursday, January 16, 2020
Motivation is the drive that makes us do things: this is a result of our individual needs being met so that we are galvanised to complete the task. Depending on how motivated we are, may further govern the effort we put into our work and perhaps increase output and the quality of that output. Some people are motivated by a high wage or salary but others look for satisfaction from responsibility or a job well done. Businesses rely on their staff being efficient, both in the quantity and quality of output. If employees are not sufficiently motivated to meet these criteria, the business has a problem. A study published in 1966 by Fredrick Herzberg, after he had interviewed a number of people from different professions, attempted to find out two things: * Those factors that motivated people in the workforce Ã¢â¬â factors that resulted in job satisfaction and further increased their efficiency * Those factors that prevented job dissatisfaction Ã¢â¬â these factors did not make employees happy but removed unhappiness from working. Such factors, Herzberg referred to as Ã¢â¬ËhygieneÃ¢â¬â¢ factors Ã¢â¬â those that if not satisfied would reduce employee efficiency. Although some factors were found to fall into both categories, broadly speaking, Herzberg identified, Achievement, Recognition. The Nature of Work, and Responsibility as motivators, and How the Business was Run, Supervision, Work Conditions, and Pay as hygiene factors. One striking finding in the study was that factors associated with encouraging motivation, have little connection with money, but are associated with personal development and achievement. This is not to say that increasing pay doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t remove job dissatisfaction Ã¢â¬â it does, but only in the short term. Shine Communications, a communications agency based in London and employing 56 staff, was voted by employees, the number one company, in the Sunday Times 100 Best Small Companies to Work For, 2012. Over 500 companies entered this competition and were judged according to a number of pre-determined criteria, assessed by the answers to 70 questions. Shine achieved top scores in 36 of the questions. Ã¢â¬Å"I do believe if you look after your people and you are a consultancy, you are going get great results as you are looking after your best assetÃ¢â¬ , says Rachel Bell, the chief executive of Shine. Bell, who was voted Best Leader, says she wants staff to reach their full potential and is always asking staff for advice. Ten per cent of ShineÃ¢â¬â¢s annual profit is re-invested into training, and each member of staff has a personal development fund which can be used, for example, on training or conquering a fear. Lawrence Colling, the joint managing director, has worked at Shine for 10 years and has never felt the need to work elsewhere Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬Å"the fact that it has grown five times over, only results in more exciting clientsÃ¢â¬ . There is a flexible benefits scheme which can include membership of Tate Modern or raising money for charity, and this acts as an incentive to do well. Flexible working is encouraged, with the head of social media working partly from his home in France. Questions 1 At Shine Recruitment the joint managing director had been at the company for 10 years. Explain one disadvantage of staff working at a firm for a long period of time. 2 Labour turnover at Shine is 12 per cent per annum. Explain two advantages of low labour turnover for the firm. 3 MaslowÃ¢â¬â¢s Hierarchy of Needs suggests that all workers have basic needs such as obtaining food and drink, which have to be satisfied before other needs can be considered. Does MaslowÃ¢â¬â¢s view tend to suggest that HerzbergÃ¢â¬â¢s theory is flawed? 4 From the information given in the case study, and using your own understanding of Herzberg, analyse two reasons why the level of job dissatisfaction at Shine may be low. 5 The name Shine was chosen from a quote in Nelson MandellaÃ¢â¬â¢s inaugural presidential address Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬Å"And as we let our own light show we unconsciously give other people permission to do the sameÃ¢â¬ . What aspects of HerzbergÃ¢â¬â¢s motivators can you recognise from this philosophy? 6 Assess the benefits of Shine Communication re-investing 10 per cent of its profits back into the business through training. ANSWERS 1 It is important for a business to have a settled workforce in order for a good, calm working environment to prevail. It is clear that staff at Shine are happy in their work, but if the workforce is relatively young and ambitious the staff turnover is always going to occur. A disadvantage of this is that workers who add value to a company may be lost. However there are likely to be problems if staff stay too long. They may become stale and lack innovative ideas. They may settle for the status quo, the easy life, and sections of the company may lack dynamism because of this. Personal relationships can be a problem and freshening up of a workforce is often good. 2 Labour turnover Ã¢â¬â the number of people leaving a business in a period of time (usually a year) expressed as a percentage of the total workforce. A 12 per cent labour turnover at Shine means that 5 or 6 people leave each year and, in a relatively new, forward looking business, this should be regarded as relatively low, and perhaps about the right level. Having a settled workforce has a number of advantages. The training and experience gained can be channelled more effectively into a firm with workforce stability, more easily than with one with a high labour turnover. Employees get to know how others work, and indeed think, so much so that there will be less indecision over choices to be made. If a member of staff is not present, a settled staff can pick up the work more easily. If employees are happy then productivity is more likely to increase as there is less friction in the workplace. Indeed it can be argued that a firm with a low labour turnover is a happy staff, otherwise more staff would leave. Shine invests heavily in training. This is not wasted if employees stay with the firm for a reasonable length of time. 3. Abraham MaslowÃ¢â¬â¢s study originated in the 1950s and is still has appeal for businesses as it has clarity. There would be little argument that everyone needs to satisfy physiological needs such as enough in a wage packet to pay the bills, and employers are aware of this and in the main heed to it. MaslowÃ¢â¬â¢s theory is based on a hierarchy with each successive level needing to be achieved before an individual can progress on to the next level. Again the second level of safety would seem to find most employers agreeing. After all, workers must feel safe in the working environment and would like security in their job. It is when the theory moves on to the higher levels of love and belonging, esteem needs and self-actualisation that more disagreement occurs. There is a problem as to when a particular level is satisfied; some rewards appear to cover more than one level Ã¢â¬â money can bring status and that would be the esteem level. Some levels will never be attained by some workers. Nevertheless, like many models, Maslow gives us a model for comparison, a measure to assess workers against. If needs are satisfied workers are more likely to be motivated. Herzberg has similarities to Maslow as he also attempted to find out what motivated people and indeed the similarities are also found in other areas. HerzbergÃ¢â¬â¢s findings, that people are motivated by achievement and recognition sit fairly comfortably with MaslowÃ¢â¬â¢s top level of self-actualisation and to a certain extent esteem needs. Where Maslow and Herzberg seem to differ is their attitude to pay/money. Herzberg does not see pay as a motivator, only as a hygiene factor which prevents dissatisfaction. Maslow states that employees cannot satisfy higher levels until they have their basic needs satiated and feel safe. Perhaps the views are not so disparate. This is a personal view, but it should be noted that HerzbergÃ¢â¬â¢s studies were concentrated on very specific groups Ã¢â¬â engineers and accountants. Most within these two groups would be well qualified and well paid. Perhaps they had already achieved the lower levels of MaslowÃ¢â¬â¢s hierarchy and therefore were looking for something more intrinsic to satisfy their need for motivation. What perhaps is safest to conclude is that different things motivate different people. Some will be money motivated, others less so. Some will seek solace and motivation in a job well done whilst others can easily divorce themselves from their job Ã¢â¬â it is a means to an end. 4 HerzbergÃ¢â¬â¢s motivators were Achievement, Recognition, the nature of work and Responsibility rather than mere monetary matters. The chief executive of Shine wants employees to reach their full potential. This fits neatly into the Ã¢â¬ËachievementÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËresponsibilityÃ¢â¬â¢ motivators of Herzberg. Rachel Bell (chief executive) is always seeking the views of staff and if those views are acted upon dissatisfaction in the work place would be relatively low. Employees appear to be well trained and if that equates to being good at your job you will be more confident, will look forward to coming into work and will be satisfied with your role. Couple this with the fact that the firm is growing then there will be more opportunity for achievement and recognition at work and less reason to be dissatisfied with how the business is run, supervision and work conditions. Combine these with the relatively low rate of labour turnover and it tempting to suggest that job dissatisfaction at Shine is low. 5. The chief executive of Shine Communications is clear that the people in the business are its best asset. The firm attempts, through its flexible benefits scheme, it flexible working initiatives and its vigorous attitude to training to get the best from its employees. The philosophy underpinning the name Ã¢â¬ËShineÃ¢â¬â¢ is to let employees use their own strengths to the benefit of the company which in turn, it hopes, will inspire others to do the same. Herzberg believed Responsibility to be a key part of his motivational strategy. This also allies closely to the idea of job enrichment where employees who are given greater degrees of personal responsibility in their job will be enriched by it. Shine Communications has grown five times over since its start up and its joint managing director Lawrence Colling believes this results in more exciting clients. This view can be aligned to HerzbergÃ¢â¬â¢s motivators of achievement and recognition. The fact that the employees voted the company the best small business to work for gives an endorsement to the nature of the work and again to the achievement felt in working for this successful firm. Whilst the ideas of personal development funds and a flexible benefits scheme do not neatly fall into HerzbergÃ¢â¬â¢s idea of motivators they will help prevent dissatisfaction in the workplace. Herzberg is clear that the hygiene factors that need to be in place in order to allow the motivators to function. Employees appear to be satisfied with how the business is run and this helps prevention dissatisfaction in the workplace. 6. Training can be provided in a number of ways. On-the-job training is particularly beneficial for new staff who can be shown how certain aspects of the job are done whilst actually performing those tasks, under supervision. Off the-job training is provided in a separate environment, such as a college or specialist work site and the training may be carried out by outside organisations. Induction training is generally provided over a short period of time when new employees are taken on by a firm. It helps new staff to see what is expected of them in a more general way. Shine Communications ploughs 10 per cent of profits back into the business through training. It clearly believes this to be a worthwhile investment. All employees are given training and some staff may use part of their personal development fund for additional training. Communications is a fast changing world and firms and their employees need to keep up-to-date on the latest developments, particularly in electronic communications. Personnel communication is a skill not always addressed in business and one in which some people adapt more readily to than others. Both of these types of training will be of great importance to Shine. Theory would suggest that training is costly; that it can be disruptive, and that some employees do not want it as it takes them out of their comfort zone. Not all training providers are good. Not all training is relevant, yet as most businesses provide training as part of an ongoing programme it may be safe to assume that is valuable. At Shine there appears to be a correlation between the amount of training provided and the success of the business. This is not to say that good training will make a business successful, more that the chances of success are enhanced and that the removal of training is more likely to hinder the progress of the firm than benefit it. It could be argued that the ten per cent of profits set aside for training could be invested back into the business in another way but after a firm has paid out dividends to its shareholders it would be wise in invest in a number of areas, of which training would be high on the agenda.
Wednesday, January 8, 2020
Optimism is a disposition or tendency to look to the more favourable side of events or conditions and to expect the most favourable condition (optimism, n.d.). Counter to optimism is pessimism which is the tendency to anticipate only bad or undesirable outcomes (pessimism, n.d.). When looking at optimism it is important to look at the opposing side to emphasis the unwelcome effects of thinking negatively in terms of wellbeing which in the long term could be detrimental to health and prosperity. Generally, optimism has been related to better subjective wellbeing in challenging and difficult moments throughout life and it has been found to be consistent with the ability to cope better in complex and sufferable situations (Carver et al., 2010). Additional to this, optimism is said to improve upon various outcomes in relation to: mental health, physical health, performance in daily activities and personal relationships (Scheier Carver, 1985). One particular piece of research has looked directly at optimism and pessimism in relation to postpartum depression. Carver and Gaines conducted this research by looking at life changing events; in this particular case, the birth of a child. One assessment of depressive mood and optimism was made several weeks before the birth of the child and the second assessment was 3 weeks postpartum where their emotional wellbeing was measured by a scale named the LOT (Life Orientation Test derived from Carver and Scheier*) and another scaleShow MoreRelatedOptimism : Optimism Over Pessimism997 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesOptimism can be defined as Ã¢â¬Å"Hopefulness and confidence about the future or the success of somethingÃ¢â¬ (en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition, n.d.) or more specifically as Ã¢â¬Å"extent to which people hold generalized favorable expectancies for their futureÃ¢â¬ (Birkeland, Blix, Heir, 2007). ItÃ¢â¬â¢s a characteristic trait which is unique and observed in certain indi viduals. 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